Swimsuit - Trolls Favorite Flower
Personal plots, cottages, and the urban landscape can not be imagined without decorative perennials. They do not need to be sown and transplanted annually, and caring for them is simple. Among these cultures, among the first I want to name the swimsuits blooming in early summer. They are very decorative, although they are still not so common in gardens.
The genus swimsuit (Trollius) belongs to the family of buttercups (Ranuncu-laceae). The Latin name of the genus comes from the German word ‘Troll-biume’, which translates as “flower of trolls” (according to popular belief, fairy-tale forest creatures, this plant is nicer than all others). Another version of the translation is known - ‘troll’ in the Old German language means “ball”.
Under natural conditions, about 20 species of bathing plants grow. They are common in Western Europe, Russia, Japan and China. For landscaping, we can recommend several species that are most stable in central Russia.
- European Trollius (Trollius europaeus) - found in forests and forest edges on moist soils. Pretty common in the temperate zone of Russia and in the countries of Scandinavia. It differs from other types of lemon-yellow, as if luminous flowers, opening in May-June.
- Asian trollius (Trollius asiaticus) - grows in glades and meadows not only in flat forests, but also in the subalpine and alpine zones of mountains from the Urals to Mongolia. This species is most often found in culture; its bright orange flowers are called fry in Siberia. Blooms in the middle lane in May-June.
- Altai bathhouse (Trollius altaicus) - distributed in the mountain meadows of Altai, Pamir and Tien Shan. It is very similar to an Asian swimsuit, but in contrast to the latter, a more or less pronounced black-purple spot appears in the center of the flower, formed by dark-colored twisted stigmas. It blooms at the same time as the previous species.
- Chinese Trollius (Trollius chinensis) - found in moist glades and moist meadows in the Ussuri Territory, as well as in China and Japan. This species is of particular interest to the culture in connection with the later flowering. Orange flowers bloom in mid-summer and flowering lasts more than a month (up to 36 days).
Various forms of hybrids of hybrid origin are widespread in culture, differing from each other in shades of flowers: from light orange (Goliath, Orange Cross) to dark orange and orange-red (Orange King, Orange Princesses).
Adult plants reach 90 cm in height, they have a branched stem with sessile simple leaves, usually divided into 5 lobes with sharp-toothed edges. At the bottom of the plant, the leaves are collected in a basal rosette.
The decorative qualities of the leotards are due to their bright, plentiful, although not very large (up to 8 cm in diameter) flowers. By nature, they are terry and have up to 20 petals. The calyx is colored just like a corolla and falls off during flowering. The middle petals are linear. They perform the function of nectaries and have a honey hole. On the convex receptacle are numerous stamens and pistils.
Shoots of swimsuits appear in mid-April and quickly gain strength under the rays of the spring sun. Most species already in early May form the first buds, which soon begin to bloom. Flowering lasts an average of 20 days. By about mid-June, depending on weather conditions, seeds ripen in the fruit of the leaflets. True, not all of them sprout, as they have low viability. Spring sowing without stratification does not germinate at all. The best time is autumn. Seeds are sown in October on a ridge or in a box and are almost not covered with earth.
Seeds that are not sown in autumn should be stratified in winter for 2-3 months in moist sand at a temperature of 3-5 ° C, and sown in a greenhouse in March. The emergence of seedlings should be expected in a month.
If necessary, the seedlings are buried. The first true leaves are triple dissected with a serrated edge. When 5 leaves form on the plant, the cotyledons die. By this time, the root system has 10-15 subordinate roots and is buried in the ground by 15 cm. By the 3-4th year, young plants bloom.
Fertile moist soils are most suitable for bathing suits. Long-term observations have shown that although this culture is quite plastic, its decorativeness still depends on the cultivation conditions. Plants planted in open glades reach a maximum height of 50-60 cm by the age of 2-3 years. Under shading conditions, the leotard is higher (70-90 cm), not only the stems but also the petioles become longer. With a lack of light, the bush develops more slowly and reaches its largest size only at the 6-7th year. In bright light, more flowers form and the plant as a whole is more decorative.
The most common method of vegetative propagation of bathing pools is the division of the mother liquor. Plants are planted in spring or early fall. The planting form is prepared with a depth of 40 cm. Next are nests of 3-5 pieces at a distance of 50 cm from each other. During the entire sowing period, the earth around the bushes is loosened and weeds are weeded. In the dry period, watering is necessary. To bloom more magnificent, every 3-5 years, plants are fed phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. At the end of the growing season (in autumn), shoots are pruned at a height of 5 cm.
Golden swimsuits are in perfect harmony with such cultures as dream grass, delphinium, catchment, blueberries, muscari, which have mainly blue-blue flowers.