Phytophthora on the site - symptoms, methods of prevention and control
The middle of summer is already behind us, which means that frequent rains, cool nights and fogs will begin very soon - a favorite environment for late blight, the scourge of vegetable crops (not only tomatoes, but also a number of other plants). Phytophthora can affect, for example, bell pepper, eggplant, cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkin ... What can I say! From late blight, even an apple tree, strawberries and grapes can suffer. We all know what phytophthora is, and everyone probably has their own secret composition that helps them to overcome this infection. In this publication, we will tell you how to avoid phytophthora, how to deal with it with non-environmentally friendly means and how to destroy it with folk remedies, that is, safe.
- Why does late blight appear on plants?
- Prevention of late blight on the site
- Symptoms of late blight on various cultures
- Methods of controlling late blight
Why does late blight appear on plants?
Phytophthora, orLate blight - a disease that occurs as a result of the vital activity of the fungus Phytophthoraliving in the soil. As a rule, late blight affects not only the leaves and stems of plants, but also fruits, including tubers, if we talk about potatoes.
By the way, it is generally accepted that late blight is almost the “main” disease of tomatoes, but meanwhile, late blight potatoes are affected on the site, and only after a week or two the infection passes to other plants - tomatoes, eggplant, strawberries, etc. d. Spores of the fungus spread with wind, water, when healthy plants come into contact with infected plant debris, healthy fruits can also be infected by non-healthy ones.
Contribute to the development of the fungus:
- High humidity;
- Profuse dew in the morning (which is typical of August);
- Sharp fluctuations in day and night temperatures;
- Location of the plot in the lowlands.
If at night it is about +10, and in the daytime up to + 22 ° C, late blight, for sure, will take up your plants. Unless, of course, you do not take care of prevention on time.
Prevention of late blight on the site
The first thing to consider is the area for planting crops that are prone to late blight, you need to choose a level of cold air without stagnation of melt or rain water. Watering such plants should be moderate, only as necessary, but also not allowing the soil to dry out too much, because with the onset of late blight, drought will only contribute to the early maturation of fungal spores and their dispersal by wind throughout the site.
Planting tomatoes, potatoes, strawberries, grapes and other plants should be at such a distance from each other so that they do not obscure or interfere with the root system and the aerial mass to develop. And in the case of phytophthora attack on one plant species, so that the distance would minimize the risk of phytophthora transfer to cultures of another family. You also need to try to keep the land clean from weeds.
When carrying out any operations, the inventory when moving from one plant to another needs to be disinfected. To do this, you need to have a cotton wool soaked in alcohol and a small jar in which you will have to dip this cotton wool from time to time to wipe the blades of the cutting tools, otherwise the infection from the diseased plant can go healthy.
It is advisable to plant green manure crops on the site, they are actively growing vegetative mass and pulling excess water out of the soil, and at the end of the season green manure can simply be mowed and planted into the soil - you will get a good green fertilizer.
Remember that the main source of late blight on the site is the soil itself, because the fungus lives there. Therefore, the main efforts to prevent late blight should be directed precisely at disinfecting the land. If in the garden any plants were ill with late blight, definitely - the fungus remained in the soil and, if no measures were taken, the following plantings would be affected.
What can be done to disinfect the soil as part of the prevention of late blight? Destroy spores of the fungus with fungicides or biological preparations of a similar action. It is better if the chemical treatment is carried out in the fall, after harvesting, or in the early spring, so as not to harm the quality of vegetables grown on this soil.
In addition, for prevention, it is possible to use mulching. Mulch prevents the penetration of fungal spores from the soil onto the plants, as they fall on them along with moist air that rises from the ground. If you cover the soil with a thick layer of mulch in spring, it can become an obstacle for many plant diseases, not just late blight.
Prevention of late blight on tomatoes
By isolating tomatoes from other plants that can infect them with late blight (at least from potatoes), you will already be effectively prevented. In addition, tomatoes need careful care and care, which will enhance the immunity of plants and make them more resistant to the effects of the fungus. It is imperative - to collect all plant debris in the fall, and in the spring - carefully dig the plot for planting tomatoes.
Growing eggplant and bell pepper, follow the same methods of phytophthora prevention as for tomatoes.
Prevention of late blight on strawberries
Garden strawberries, which we stubbornly call strawberries, are prone to late blight no less than tomatoes. The main prevention method is to plant strawberries in areas that are well lit by the sun and ventilated. Be sure to collect ripe berries in a timely manner, remove the tops and fallen leaves in the fall, and destroy the berries and leaves in the summer, which are still affected by the fungus. To do this, do not forget to carefully inspect the strawberry bushes from time to time.
Mulching helps to reduce the level of moisture in the soil during rainy days, and yet, where there is increased humidity and dampness, there is late blight. It is believed that planting onions in rows with strawberries also protect the latter from late blight. Try planting one onion every four to five bushes. Perhaps this particular technique will help you protect your strawberry plantings from late blight.
Prevention of late blight on potatoes
The selection of potato planting material, in which all affected tubers are discarded, allows only healthy root crops to be planted - and this is the key to growing potatoes on a site without late blight. Unless, of course, the site for planting potatoes is not infected with a fungus.
Potatoes can be planted on such beds no earlier than after 3-4 years, and all this time siderats must be sown from the legumes, which are not afraid of late blight and significantly improve the quality of the soil.
Help protect potatoes from late blight and preventive treatment of planting material - spraying tubers with a special solution with trace elements. This can be either 2 g of copper sulfate and 10 g of boric acid diluted in 10 l of water, or 10 g of potassium permanganate in the same volume of water.
Prevention of late blight on the apple tree
The main measures for the prevention of fungal infections that cause late blight, apple trees and other fruit trees are the following agricultural practices:
- Collection and destruction of fallen leaves and fruits;
- Cleaning and coating garden varieties of wounds on a plant, including after sanitary or formative pruning.
Prevention of late blight on grapes
Proper grape farming technology will also help protect grapes from late blight.
- Providing the plant with all the nutrients;
- Optimum humidity (do not overfill, but do not bring to dryness);
- A sufficient amount of sunlight;
- Removal and destruction of infected plants.
Before laying a new vineyard, do not be too lazy to disinfect the soil from the possible presence of fungus.
Symptoms of late blight on various crops
In general, with good prevention, the risk of late blight on the site is minimal, but nevertheless, it happens that the weather conditions are such that the fungus very easily gets on the plants. And here it is important to understand in a timely manner that it is late blight in order to quickly eliminate the infected focus, preventing its spread throughout the site.
Late blight usually looks like brown or brown spots on the leaves, stems or fruits of plants. If the lesion is extensive, the fruits become rough to the touch, and the leaves dry out and fall off.
Phytophthora on tomatoes
Phytophthora on tomatoes first appears as dark brown moist spots on the stems and leaves. In this case, as a rule, when damp, the underside of the leaves is covered with white coating. Soon spots also appear on the tomatoes themselves, later the whole fruit becomes affected and unfit for consumption.
The fungus is easily transmitted from a diseased vegetable to a healthy one, therefore all affected parts of plants and their fruits must be picked and destroyed (tomato fruits, only slightly affected by the fungus, can be put on ripening and eaten fresh, but they should not be preserved).
Phytophthora on pepper and eggplant
On these cultures late blight is manifested in the same way as on tomatoes. In addition, very often even the seedlings of eggplant and pepper die from the effects of the fungus. To prevent this, you need to treat them with fungicides in time.
Phytophthora on potatoes
Especially often late blight appears on the potato during its flowering period. First, spots appear on the lower leaves, then on the upper. They grow rapidly, and if you do not intervene in time, the plant may die - the green mass of potatoes will wither, blacken and completely dry.
Root crops are also affected by late blight. First, grayish spots with sharp borders appear on them, then they turn brown and harden, look like they were pressed. With the development of the disease, spots cover the entire surface of the fetus, and if it is cut in half, then rusty patches can be seen on the periphery of the potato, which taper towards the center.
Phytophthora on garden strawberry
When a fungus is infected with garden strawberries, its berries, leaves, flowers, and even a mustache also suffer. Flowers acquire red spots, leaves and stems turn brown and dry. On still green berries, brown spots with bright edges can be seen. They dry up, never ripening. As a rule, late blight on strawberries appears in the second half of June.
Phytophthora on the apple tree
The appearance of late blight on the apple tree is almost a sentence. The fact is that the fungus primarily affects the root neck of the tree. The fabric in this place becomes violet-blue, the bark of the tree is cracked, and a rotting core of dark brown is exposed.
Theoretically, such a tree can be treated, but it’s simpler to prevent late blight on the apple tree (we wrote about prevention above). Most often, patients with late blight trees uproot to prevent the spread of the disease in the area.
Phytophthora on grapes
For grapes late blight is as dangerous as for apple trees. Initially, the roots are affected by the fungus, which leads to their decay, then ulcers and cracks appear, flowing out of the juice on the stem. If the disease is not stopped, the color of the leaves of the grapes changes, they become smaller and fall off, the fruits rot, and soon the plant dies.
Methods of controlling late blight
If leaves, stems or fruits are affected in the area affected by late blight, they must be immediately removed and destroyed, and the plants and soil should be immediately treated with late blight agents.
Chemicals against late blight
But if phytophthora still appeared on your site, then most likely you can not do without the use of chemicals. But first you need to collect all the fruits until the late blight reaches them, and try to ripen them (this is if we are talking about tomatoes).
As for other cultures, then you can not do without the use of chemistry or folk remedies. Say a potato - it will not work out before the deadline, so you need to carry out the appropriate processing.
As for chemicals, when the first signs of late blight appear, fungicides can be used, strictly following the instructions on the package and always putting on protective clothing. All treatments are carried out in the evening, if you carry out treatments in the afternoon, then burns may appear on the leaves of plants.
Biological products against late blight
In addition to chemicals, biological preparations can also be used. They contain bacteria in a sleeping state, but as soon as they come into contact with water, they become active and begin to work.
Of course, biological preparations are considered less effective in the fight against late blight, because the strength of their effects is significantly lower, and they are washed off by rain and irrigation water, often without having time to act, so they have to be treated more often than with chemical preparations, i.e. fungicides . But they are safe for humans and for the environment.
Folk remedies against late blight
Kefir and milk against late blight
Apply treatment with kefir and whey in the amount of one liter of one and the other in solution in a bucket of water. To the resulting composition for a greater effect, you can add half a glass of sugar. Such treatments can be carried out in the evening every week, but only after flowering ends, and ovaries appear.
The fact is that milk bacteria, more precisely, a sour-milk fungus, literally kills the infection by completely suppressing the development of late blight fungus. If the solution was kept on the branches for several days, the result will be very good.
Iodine and boron against late blight
A mixture of iodine, boron and dairy products has a very strong antimicrobial effect. There are a lot of options for preparing plant treatment products from these ingredients. For example, you need to take half a bucket of water, pour a liter of milk there and drip 25 drops of ordinary iodine - with this compound you can treat plants affected by late blight even every day until the disease is completely defeated.
Or here’s another composition: you need to pour a couple of liters of whey into six liters of water, pour 200 grams of ordinary sugar and drip 20 drops of ordinary iodine - such treatments can be carried out literally every day until the blight is completely destroyed.
The following recipe: we take seven liters of water and mix well with one liter of serum, adding 40 drops of iodine and a tablespoon of hydrogen peroxide. This composition is also safe, and when spraying plants in the evening, it is quite possible to defeat late blight.
Boron against late blight
Such a drug can actually overcome phytophthora, for this it is only necessary to dilute 7-8 g of boric acid in a bucket of water warmed up to room temperature and treat the aerial mass of affected plants. If you want the effect to be maximum, then add 25-35 drops of iodine to the composition.
If phytophthora does not manage to win, then you can use heavy artillery - boil half a bucket of water and pour half a kilo of wood ash directly into boiling water, then allow the composition to cool to room temperature, add 8-9 g of boric acid and 7-8 ml to the composition iodine and leave the mixture alone for a day. Before use, the mixture must be diluted with water ten times and as carefully as possible to spray the entire above-ground mass of plants. Important - before using this tool, areas affected by late blight should be removed.
Solutions with ash against late blight
It's no secret that wood ash, in addition to 5% potassium, also contains a large number of trace elements simply necessary for the normal functioning of the tomato and to increase its immunity.
To prepare a mixture that can be sprayed with plants, you need to dilute about 2.5 kg of ash in a bucket of water and let it brew for a couple to three days, stirring the mixture every day.When the solution is ready, you will need to add a piece of laundry soap as an adhesive, bring the volume of this solution to 40 liters and spray daily until the infection completely disappears.
If late blight does not appear, then this composition can also be used as a prophylaxis. Then they can be processed plants no more than three times during the growing season, usually immediately after transplanting, then at the very beginning of flowering and immediately after the formation of the ovaries.
Yeast versus late blight
A yeast composition is prepared by diluting about 100 g of fresh yeast in a bucket of water and watering this composition of the plant as soon as flowering is completed and buds begin to form.
Garlic tincture against late blight
Everything will be used - both the aerial part of garlic plants and cloves. You need to grind about a half cup of garlic as best as possible, add water to a bucket, close the lid, let stand for a day, then strain through three layers of gauze, drip literally a couple of drops of potassium permanganate and treat this composition with plants every two weeks, as soon as the ovaries begin to form, let even very small.
Important: processing with this composition should be carried out as thoroughly as possible and for each tomato bush, for example, spend at least half a liter of infusion.
Copper vs Phytophthora
Probably even schoolchildren know about the use of copper for protection against late blight: as soon as the stem grows so much that it can pass the thinnest copper wire four centimeters long, it needs to be done. You need to pierce the stem in the lower part, first sharpening part of the wire like a needle, disinfecting both the wire and the trunk with alcohol.
In order not to get hurt inadvertently, the ends of the wire can be bent after piercing the trunk towards the soil. Usually this procedure is carried out early in the morning, when the stem is in the turgor.
Mushroom tinder fungus against late blight
In the fight against late blight, everything seems to be used, so the fungus tinder fungus has found its place. Of course, they do not use the parts of the mushroom themselves, applying to the sore spot or rubbing the areas affected by late blight, they prepare the infusion, first drying the mushroom. Then it is ground with a sharp knife or even in a coffee grinder, after which 90-120 g of the mushroom is poured with a liter of boiling water and allowed to stand until the water temperature reaches room temperature. It remains to strain the solution well through a couple of layers of gauze and pour the affected plant from the spray, starting from its upper part and dropping down.
By the way, it is advisable to carry out the very first treatment for tomatoes during the period of the appearance of the first ovaries, the remaining treatments - once every 12-14 days (especially carefully, if the effect of late blight on plants is enhanced).
Horsetail versus late blight
Of the completely available natural remedies, a decoction of horsetail helps against late blight. Gardeners are sure that such a decoction significantly enhances the immunity of plants. All you need to do is in a liter of water, preferably soft, put 120 g of fresh horsetail that grows in abundance on acidic soils, and cook for half an hour on low heat. Next, the resulting broth should be diluted five times with water and you can safely treat it with plants, until the phytophthora completely disappears.
Conclusion So, we see that it’s better to prevent any disease and phytophthora rather than treat it for a long time, and therefore do not thicken the plantings, use crop rotation, do not plant plants in low places and depressions, water moderately, and when there is plenty of rain, often loosen the soil. And, of course, use folk remedies for prevention and control. Then phytophthora your site will definitely bypass.