Fruit seedlings - selection and planting
Before you start laying a garden or a berry, planting a separate tree or bush, you need to do a lot of preliminary work. Planting perennials will not form a crop for the next year or the same summer as vegetables. For perennials, the waiting period for the crop ranges from 3 to 7 years. Incorrectly planted perennial - lost years.
In order for the trees to take root and form a crop in a timely manner, it is necessary to select zoned varieties. Peaches will not grow in the north in the open ground, even frost-resistant. In the south, conifers (cedars) are difficult to take root. Before laying the garden, you need to work with the garden diary, where to bring all the necessary preliminary (preparatory) work.
To purchase garden seedlings, it is necessary to determine in advance what types and types, varieties will be planted or replaced with young ones.
Make a plan for planting seedlings. In the diary, add a planting scheme with the name of the species and varieties. Each variety must be accompanied by a brief description indicating:
- the height of the culture, so that in the future it does not obscure undersized during mixed plantings,
- type of crown, so that the plantings are not thickened, especially if high, medium, dwarf and columnar species are planted,
- ripening period - early, medium, late, as they are cared for, especially when treated with chemical preparations, at different times.
Having outlined in the garden diary a plan for planting the future garden, you must immediately indicate the distance in the row and row spacing.
- For high- and medium-sized crops with a spreading crown, the distance in the row and row spacing is 8–9 × 10 m, respectively.
- For trees on dwarf rootstocks - 4-5x5 m, respectively.
- For columnar types - 2x2 m.
You cannot mix low and tall crops, with a spreading crown with dwarf and column-shaped. Over time, undersized crops will begin to wither, as they will be deprived of light, sun and air.
Selection of the location of seedlings in a neighboring crop
People say, before you buy a house, meet your neighbors, you live with them. To make the trees feel comfortable throughout their productive life, when laying the garden, it is necessary to provide for the location of the crops (pick a neighbor).
Good neighbors for the apple tree are cherry, plum, pear, quince. Sweet cherries, viburnum and lilacs act on it oppressively. For a pear, wonderful neighbors are an apple tree and a mountain ash. She does not tolerate the neighborhood of plums, viburnum and cherries. Favorite neighbors for cherries are apple trees and cherries. For plums, apple trees are good neighbors. Pears have a depressing effect on plums.
From the garden diary, transfer the scheme to the site, where in each planting pit fix a plate with the name and variety of fruit crop.
Preparatory work in the garden
Having uprooted an old tree or bush, it is impossible to plant young seedlings in the same place in the next 2-3 years. Each plant leaves behind certain substances that inhibit new plantings. The soil should rest from previous plantings. During the waiting period, one-year-old flowering plants, vegetables growing in the shade, and other crops can be planted at this place. You can simply leave clean steam, alternate it with green manure, or in other ways heal the land from a previous long landing.
Before planting seedlings, all work on the preparation of the soil should be carried out. Acidified soils must be deoxidized before planting the garden with dolomite flour. This technique is more practical to perform throughout the site, but it is also possible in separate landing pits.
Selection and preparation of planting material
Saplings with open and closed root systems are on sale. For autumn planting, it is better to use plants with an open, or bare root system. It will be more convenient to track the condition and development of the root system, cut off the roots, which will stimulate the plant to develop rapidly, and transshipment of seedlings from containers may not work when the onset of early cold weather.
If the seedlings were bought in early autumn with foliage, then the leaves must be cut off so that the plant does not evaporate moisture when the root system has not yet taken root and has not begun to supply moisture to the plant.
In autumn, all frost-resistant fruit seedlings of middle and late varieties (apple trees, pears, cherries) are usually planted. The root system has virtually no dormant period and in the autumn the seedlings will be able to adapt to new conditions.
If seedlings were bought in late autumn (especially in cold regions), then it is better to dig them in and save them until spring and in the spring they will already be planted in a permanent place. Seedlings can be dug up or packed in a plastic bag with sand and left in the basement until spring. In the southern regions, they are often dug in the open ground.
Non-frost-resistant and heat-loving crops (peaches, apricots, cherries, early apple trees, pears, plums, cherries) are best planted in the spring. You need to buy seedlings with live buds (be sure to check). The first leaves are a signal to the end of spring plantings. Seedlings with a leafy aerial part often die, because the roots still do not work, and the leaves require moisture and, if the weather is hot and dry, even root watering will not save from air drought and the seedlings will die.
Dates of planting seedlings by region
Depending on the climatic conditions of the region, tree planting is carried out in spring or autumn. This is due, first of all, to the need to adapt perennials to new conditions of growth and development, with the possibility of fixing the root system in the soil.
So, in the southern regions it is always better to plant seedlings in the fall after falling off the main leaf mass of adult trees. Long autumn period with warm weather is a great time for young plants. The root will have time to form young roots, which will begin to supply the plant with water and nutrients, and the aboveground mass will get used to, and will not react so painfully to late autumn winds and rains, it will “stop” the winter season.
Spring planting in the south is not prohibited, but again it is necessary to link the planting period with spring weather. Short spring and sharp warming with the hot sun will dry the overhead shoot, and even constant watering will not help. The seedling will be ill and, possibly, will die or only begin to develop next year. Currently, weather conditions are changing dramatically, and the "memory" of plants lags behind new conditions.
Northern conditions with their early frosts and deep freezing of the soil are not suitable for young plantings. In cold soil, the root will not “work”. The root system requires a positive temperature in the root-inhabited layer (not less than +8 .. + 10 * С). Such conditions in the northern regions and the cold middle zone of Russia form in the spring. Over the summer, young seedlings and bushes will develop the root system, the aboveground mass will give an annual increase. Planting will go into wintering with fully developed plants. In northern conditions, seedlings are planted before buds open and the soil is completely thawed against the background of constantly rising positive temperatures.
In the middle lane, the planting of fruit seedlings and berry bushes is successful in spring and autumn planting. In the spring, young animals are planted before buds open, and in autumn, when the adult garden is exposed.
Rules for planting seedlings
Planting pits are prepared 6-8 months before planting seedlings of horticultural crops. Finally adjust the size of the pit to the root system of the seedling. During the final preparation of the planting pit, its walls are left loose so that the layers of the introduced soil mix faster with the rest and roots more easily grow outside the pit.
When buying seedlings, you need to pay attention to the root system. The main roots should have small subordinate, fouling at the ends, they will first begin to develop and absorb moisture. Slices on the roots should be lively, white or with shades of yellow, pinkish and other colors. Dry seedlings are risky to buy. They may not wake up, despite the sellers' assurance of their viability. If such seedlings take root, then they are sick for a long time, lag behind in development, much later form the first crop.
It is best to buy 1-2 summer seedlings for planting. They quickly take root, easily give in to the necessary formation of the crown. Gardeners say - annuals are plasticine, 3 - 4-year-old seedlings - clay for crafts. Saplings 10-20 hours before planting are dipped in a solution of root or other root growth stimulant. If the seedling is sleeping, it can be kept in solution for 1-2 days.
At the bottom of the pit drainage is laid. Fine stone, crushed stone, sand, thick branches and other material are used for drainage. The entire drainage level is covered with sand or soil.
The soil from the excavated pit is mixed with humus or mature compost. Add 10-15 g / bucket of soil nitroammofoski. You can use another complex fertilizer with a minimum nitrogen content. The prepared mixture is poured into the pit, forming a tubercle.
A wooden stake is immediately driven into the middle of the pit, to which, after planting, a seedling is tied through the figure eight.
The roots of the seedling are spread along the top of the tubercle and are covered with soil in two third holes and a half bucket is filled - a bucket of water. During planting, the seedling is shaken slightly at times so that the soil occupies the voids between the roots. After absorbing water, backfill is continued to the edges of the pit. When planting, the location of the vaccine or the root neck of unvaccinated seedlings is clearly monitored.
At the end of the planting, a shaft 4–6 cm high is made around a seedling with a diameter of 0.5-0.7 m so that water does not flow over the site. Another 1-2 buckets of water are poured and the watered soil is covered with shallow mulch up to 10-15 cm high. The mulch is moved away from the stand of the seedling so that it does not block.
When planting a grafted seedling, it is necessary to leave the grafting site above the ground so that the root neck is at ground level. She is always below the vaccine. This is necessary so that the plant does not begin to cluster under the ground and, instead of the cultivar, does not get the usual wild game. With proper planting, rootstock shoots that have appeared must be removed. Usually they leave (for different cases) only scion stems.
When planting unvaccinated seedlings (peach from seed, cherry), the root neck after shrinkage of the soil should be established at ground level. The place of transition of the color of the stem to the color of the root (usually light brown) is considered the location of the root neck.
After planting 1 summer seedlings with ordinary stock, the aerial part is cut to 70-80 cm, and the dwarf one to 60-70 cm.
Planting seedlings with a closed root system (in containers) can be carried out from early spring to frost. Having freed the seedling from the container, it is transferred to a prepared landing pit with a lump of earth. Sprinkle around with fertilized local soil and water abundantly. The soil in the first month of planting is constantly maintained wet by systematic irrigation. The crown from the burning sun is covered with gauze or other material with sparse weaving. If there is a need for a summer landing, then choose cloudy, even rainy weather. The sapling is regularly watered, shelter from sunlight, sprayed in dry weather.
If groundwater is close, drainage is made 30-40 cm high. Fill the pit with a fertilized soil mixture. An embankment (slide) of 30-70 cm is formed from the soil above the ground. To prevent the slide from spreading, use boards, slate or other enclosing material and fill it with prepared soil. It turns out a box whose diameter for planting a seedling can have from 1.0 to 2.0 m. In the center, dig a hole and plant a seedling. Such landings on the slides are carried out if the groundwater bed is approaching a 1.0-1.5 meter mark from the soil level.